ELF/VLF radio signals, in approximately the 300Hz to 30kHz band, are commonly used for ionospheric remote sensing, geophysical prospecting, and studies of the near-Earth space environment. Naturally occurring ELF/VLF emissions from lightning strikes can be detected for thousands of miles and provide an abundance of wave-particle interaction possibilities in the radiation belts.
Modeling of VLF waves in the magnetosphere still remains a
computationally challenging task. Typical VLF waves may propagate for
many seconds in the magnetosphere over scales much larger than a
wavelength. In addition, nonlinear processes regularly give rise to
observable phenomena such as triggering, entrainment, and growth of
VLF waves. As such, computational modeling must be tailored to the
problem at hand. On medium scales, layered media models are most
Electromagnetic geophysical exploration methods have been an open area of research since the 1950’s. The goal of such methods is to image the electrical properties of rock underground. Theoretically, deposits of minerals and hydrocarbons could be mapped in addition to voids like tunnels and mines.
Raytracing is one of the first theories of light propagation to ever
be developed. A ray, conceptually, represents the flow of power or
the path taken by “packet” of electromagnetic energy through a
Lightning strikes kill about
The investigation of the antenna in a mag
Until recently, it was thought that the dazzling display of light
offered by a thunderstorm was confined to the lightning activity in the
thunderstorm clouds and between the clouds and the ground.
Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are brief bursts of energetic gamma-rays produced in the atmosphere and observed by satellites in low-Earth orbit.